According to Official Guinness Records,
Hermann Welcker (8 April 1822–12 September 1897) was a German anatomist and anthropologist who was born in Giessen, Germany. He was trained in anatomy and had a particular interest in interpreting the face of a person from the shape and form of their skull. Welcker had a particular interest in determining what historical figures must have looked like, and in 1857 he wrote about the form of Dante's skull. It was not until 1883, however, that Welcker proposed that the form of muscles and soft tissue on a person's face could be characterized and superimposed on an actual skull to gain an idea of what that person originally looked like. This process forms the basis of both criminal and anthropological forensic face reconstruction as used today.
For a complete list of 1883 records, please visit 1883 Guinness Records in Germany.